Changing Evolution

mothsIt’s well known that humans have had a huge impact on the world’s biodiversity, with some suggesting that we have precipitated the sixth major extinction event in the Earth’s history. This may also be the worst sin perpetrated in Earth’s history. And it will only be accelerated and perpetuated via climate change. Shitty job, us.

A lesser known phenomenon occurring via humans is that we have changed the path of evolution for countless critters. There is the textbook example of the peppered moth, which evolved darker strains after the industrial revolution, resulting in better camouflage on polluted surfaces. Newer studies have found that swallows that spend more time around highways have evolved shorter wings, the better to dodge and dart around traffic. A new study, also with moths, finds that city variants of ermine moths are less attracted to light than their bumpkin cousins – thus avoiding the pitfalls of porch lights.

A few dozen millennia ago, wolves that capitalized on leftovers from human camps started developing traits that endeared them to humans – and bingo bango, we got chihuahuas.* After the hunter-gatherers and their dogs started planting stuff and settling down, we started to manipulate plant and animal life to an even greater degree. Did you know that cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, and Brussels sprouts are the same species, Brassica oleracea? Or, rather, they were all cultivated from that wild plant. Carrots used to be mostly purple. Corn cobs used to look a lot more like grass stalks before humans got their hands on them.

Way before Darwin and Mendel figured out what the hell was going on, humans were intentionally changing evolution. And by changing our environment, as in the moth and swallow examples above, we’ve also made unintentional alterations to the fabric of our world. Unlike the moth and swallow examples, some of these alterations will have lasting negative repercussions.

As a small example, I was in my yard yesterday ostensibly destroying some dandelions (sans chemicals), and it occurred to me that these little em-effers are probably evolving adaptations to work around human attempts to eradicate them. I noticed that some of the dandelion flowers grow very close to the ground – is this an adaptation brought about by the dreaded lawnmower? What other ways have they evolved to continue to blight our attempts at perfect green carpets of grass?

On a larger scale (and with more than just aesthetic implications), pesticides are leading to resistant pests, which leads to increased pesticide use and new chemicals – great for Monsanto, shitty for the rest of us.

On a microscale, antibiotic overuse results in super bacteria evolving resistance, which leads to an arms race – great for big pharmaceutical companies, shitty for us. Antibiotics have also, in a sense, changed human evolution in that they have changed our microbiomes, which is partly responsible for a number of modern ailments.

Speaking of which, modern medicine has changed the course of human evolution in other ways. One side effect of the amazing advances of modern medicine is allowing many genes that used to be weeded out through natural selection to remain in the gene pool. Eventually, this problem may be solved via gene therapy, which will ultimately be a form of human-directed evolution (but that’s a story for another post).

In a sense, we are GMO’ing (GM’ing is probably more accurate) ourselves and the world – or the world is GM’ing itself, in an adapt-to-human-changes-or-die scenario. This has, of course, been part of the game since the incipient primordial soup, when microorganisms reacted and evolved to adapt to changes wrought by other microorganisms. The relationship between flowering plants and insects is one of the most fascinating examples of this. Consider the bee orchid, which, in what could be considered trans-species sexual selection, mimics a female solitary bee, inducing male bees to pseudocopulate** with the flower, thus transferring pollen (if they’d stop fucking flowers, maybe they wouldn’t be such solitary bees).

But never has the course of evolution been so affected by one species: humans. Human-caused extinction has to be up there as one of our worst irredeemable acts, but we shouldn’t overlook the other ways in which we’re altering our big blue marble.

 

*One of my favorite disses on the creationist dupes was in the movie “Jesus Camp,” when the mom says “Creationism… it’s the only possible answer to all the questions” and the camera briefly pans to her chihuahua-ish wolf (1:51 in this clip):

**I admit it, this whole post was just an excuse for me to use the word “pseudocopulate.”

Cretaceous Copulation and Primate Promiscuity

Ah, it has been a long time since I’ve had occasion to write a post. I’m still plugging away on the fun but time-consuming 125-year-old house remodel – almost done with the interior, and it’s rented beginning in March. We’re already well into 2016, yet I feel like the year has barely begun. There are so many projects piling up that I want to get to. One is getting back to the blog. So many serious and important matters to attend to. But first there’s this:

Jason Dunlop/MfN Berlin

Jason Dunlop/MfN Berlin

Coitus Interruptus on Cretaceous Copulation
Harvestmen, colloquially called daddy longlegs, normally keep their penises tucked inside, a bane for arachnologists, who use penises to help identify harvestmen species. But 99 million years ago, some harvestmen were about to do the nasty when a dollop of sap produced a permanent cockblock, perfectly preserving the perpetrator’s penis in perpetuity. Based partially on this dude’s junk, researchers have placed these harvestmen in a new, extinct family. And now we have a dual meaning for the term daddy longlegs.

Primate Promiscuity
Modern humans evolved about 200,000 years ago and occasionally got busy doing it with other hominins, who were busy doing it with other hominins. Which makes our whole human lineage fairly complicated. Europeans and Asians have about 1-3% neanderthal genes, from hooking up about 50,000-65,000 years ago. Some Neanderthals, though, had also hooked up with a group of modern humans that left Africa 100,000 years ago and later died out. To complicate matters further, another group of archaic humans, the Denisovans, were hooking up with modern humans, Neanderthals, and even Homo erectus. With newer, faster DNA-sequencing techniques, the muddy, braided stream that is modern human evolution will become clearer and clearer.

Primate Proficiency
I used to be a decent dart player. In the early days of dating my now-wife, we would hit the bars on State Street in Madison and occasionally destroy some overconfident frat boys at cricket. When I was in the zone, I could aim for the individual hole at the center of the double bullseye – not that I would always hit it, but I did manage to pull out a six-bull round every so often. When I was focused, the bullseye became a bigger target. As it turns out, I was probably perceiving the bullseye as bigger than it was. A series of studies has shown that how we perceive the world is affected by our physical traits and abilities. So a softball seems bigger to a good hitter, a field goal seems smaller to a crappy kicker, wearing a heavy backpack makes hills seem steeper, and distances seem farther to obese people. Evolutionarily, you can see why seeing a bigger target would be a good trait. Now, if I could only make that golf hole look like the size of a dinner plate.

 

Gut Reaction

bariatricBariatric surgery often helps people lose weight – just ask Al Roker. But it turns out the weight loss associated with bariatric surgery may have less to do with having a smaller stomach and more to do with how the surgery permanently changes one’s gut microbiota. A new study found that people who have undergone bariatric surgery have different gut microbiota from obese people who haven’t undergone the surgery. When these microbiota were introduced to germ-free mice, the mice that received microbiota from people who had had bariatric surgery gained less weight than mice who had received microbiota from people who hadn’t had the surgery.

As we’ve mentioned here before, once they start figuring out which microbes promote healthier weights and which don’t, it will revolutionize how we approach weight loss. What the current study portends is that risky bariatric procedures may soon be unnecessary for helping people lose weight.

Or, if you’re really desperate, you can undergo some extreme stress to lose weight. Another recent study has shown that extreme stress can induce white fat cells to turn into higher-energy-burning brown fat cells. Um, don’t try this – wait until they figure out the gut microbiota thing.

Intentional Encumbrance

scottish bridgeThe last time I wrote a post, I was getting ready to embark on an 11-day trip to Scotland to film a movie with my brother and a friend. As it turns out, shooting a feature-length film in 11 days in a foreign land is challenging. But it was also an incredible experience, which I’ll document in greater detail in a future post. Now we can look forward to months of post-production – hopefully we’ll have a viewable film sometime in 2016.

Meanwhile, back in Longmont, the casket and painting businesses, along with a plethora of other projects and ventures, have kept me busy. At the moment, I feel like I’ve got a few too many plates spinning, on top of all those irons that are overheating in the fire – maybe I can’t see because of the various hats adorning my noggin.

Here’s a synopsis of some of the projects and endeavors I’ve been involved with:

  • I sold a rental condo in Fort Collins in July. To complete a 1031 exchange, I had to have a new property picked out by mid-August. A week before the deadline, I found this place:
    atwoodAfter years of neglect, this old house (built in 1890) needs a fair amount of work. The original plan was to do a bit of cosmetic fixing up, but that quickly evolved into rewiring the whole house, replacing the furnace and adding new ducting,* redoing the bathrooms and kitchen, and ripping out a few walls – and that’s just the inside. So it looks like I’ll be busy with this for a few months. I love the place, and I hope to document some of the changes we’re making in a future post.
  • Along with a couple high school friends, I started a t-shirt biz, Cheesy or Die. We’re still in the throes of working on designs, tightening up the website, finding the correct platform for selling our schwag, marketing, and hopefully ensuring we don’t get sued or end up in jail for copyright infringement or slander or counterfeiting.**
  • A year ago, I wrote a post about practicing unhygiene, in which I posited the idea that I might spend some time taking dirt showers. Well, I did just that for a week in September, much to my wife’s chagrin.*** dirt showerAnd, to stamp some officialdom on this project, I took DNA samples of the microbiota of my pits before and after the dirt showers, as well as of the dirt I used – results will be forthcoming in the next year or so (they’re a bit backed up at the gut microbiota lab – speaking of which, my gut microbiota results are in (future post)). Preliminary results: I didn’t stink too much, my hair didn’t get greasy, I didn’t die of some strange amoebic infection or leishmaniasis.
  • In addition to those fun projects and the painting and casket businesses, my old knees are well enough that I’ve begun playing indoor soccer again, as well as helping to coach my son’s team. I’m also working to keep my cricket and mealworm farms alive in the basement for future consumption, and I’m still selling occasional Simple Brew Kits (in fact, I have to get one shipped this morning). Even the old greeting card business brought in an order for 500 cards this week.
  • In addition to this blog and post-production work on the film, I’ve had to move a few other projects to the back burner. I was hoping to get my golf game closer to bogey golf by the end of the year. Well, I haven’t been able to get out very much, and it showed when I busted out something around the mid-100s at Blackwolf Run in Wisconsin last weekend (I did a little better at a much easier course in Green Bay). So next year is the year I shoot for bogey golf. I had also hoped to achieve the fairly modest goal of benching 225 by the end of the year. I’m still going to give it a rip, but considering that I haven’t lifted since pre-Scotland, it could be a dicey proposition. Maybe I need to bring the weight bench to the remodel project.

To a certain degree, I’ve fallen victim to one of the pitfalls of eclecticism: the triage protocol is in effect, and this blog was one of the casualties (but maybe a few pounds on the chest can get its heart ticking again).**** I like being busy, but when one suddenly realizes one has forgotten to breathe for a while, one may need to slow it down a bit. Eclectics have a tendency to intentionally encumber ourselves, but it’s important to find some balance in how many projects we take on. Yes, this is absolutely a Rich Person Problem – I’m grateful that I have all these opportunities available to me.

Still, I’d like to have less plates spinning next year. I’d like 2016 to be the year of the rose, where I’ll have enough time to smell those proverbial flowers. Of course, too much time among the flowers can have an opiate effect; there’s still shit to be done, hopefully just less of it. Maybe 2016 can be the year of the rose, and some shit. In 2016, I can tie up some loose ends on the homefront, smell the roses, finish the film project, smell some more roses, write more posts, roses, focus on a few art projects, roses, think a little more globally, and of course spend more time with my family.*****

 

*None of the bedrooms have heat – apparently back in the old days, people shivered themselves to sleep.

**Part of our marketing strategy involved getting a group of Madison East Class of 90 brothers to join us at Lambeau to watch the Packers take on the Rams – we enlisted our fellow Purgolders (yes, I know, it was a pretty lame mascot) to wear our shirts and make it rain by passing out Packer Bucks:
Packer Buck

 

 

 

***I think I’m going to make a post category called “Much To My Wife’s Chagrin.” Then again, pretty much every post would be in it.

****In fact, the blog has been in an induced coma. I’ve still been feeding it new info for future posts – it just hasn’t had any outward signs of life.

*****Speaking of family, it turns out my daughter is a burgeoning eclectic herself. She has projects scattered about the house. And she even wanted to build a playhouse the other day – I told her she couldn’t even put the damn tent together (she left it strewn across the basement for me to clean up), so she’s got some work to do before she’s ready to start building a playhouse. I did teach her how to use the dremel, though, and she’s been busy carving things in wood. She is currently clandestinely filming me writing this post.

Fast and Endurious

fountain of youthA few years ago I embarked on a three-day fast after reading a Harper’s article by Steve Hendricks, Starving your way to vigor (sorry, you have to subscribe to Harper’s to read it), about the many potential health benefits of fasting. I wrote about my experience on the Mr. Money Mustache blog. It was a fun challenge; enough so that I thought I might make it a semi-annual or annual event. Alas, almost three years later, my longest fasts have resulted from skipping breakfast.

Some of the most exciting research cited in Hendricks’s article centered on how fasting affects cancer: cancer may be less likely to develop in fasting individuals, and if one does get cancer, fasting can intensify the positive effects of chemotherapy while reducing the negative effects. This chemo/fasting synergy occurs because, at a certain point during fasting, healthy cells go into a more quiescent, maintenance mode, whereas cancer cells keep on happily trying to reproduce. Thus chemo more effectively targets those rambunctious cancer cells and has less of an impact on healthy cells, resulting in less side effects.

Fasting may also help reduce seizures. Hendricks tells a compelling story about a young child who was having multiple seizures per day. The child’s parents had exhausted most medical options, to no avail, when their research led them to a century-old practice of fasting to alleviate seizures. Under their doctor’s guidance, they tried this, and it had immediate and enduring effects in reducing their child’s seizures, allowing him to lead a normal life.

Some studies have shown that fasting can protect the brain and slow aging in mice. Many people promote the idea of caloric restriction as a means to increase lifespan. For me, though, ongoing caloric restriction would feel like an unnecessary deprivation – who cares if I live a few more months if I have to endure a somewhat shittier existence for the next 40 years to achieve it? Likewise, outright fasting can be onerous, and not many people are going to adopt it as part of their lifestyle.

Enter intermittent fasting. A new study has shown that many of the benefits of fasting or caloric restriction may also accrue when one practices caloric restriction for just a few days a month. Mice fed a low-calorie, low-protein diet for two periods of four days per month lived an average of three months longer than mice on a regular diet (three months is a big deal when your lifespan is only 2-3 years – that’s like adding 5-8 years to a human life). The study also looked at humans, and found that just a few months of intermittent calorie restriction (five days per month of eating 725-1090 calories) resulted in reduced blood glucose, less abdominal fat, and lower levels of a protein associated with cardiovascular disease. Additionally, there were higher levels of some stem cells in the blood, suggesting that intermittent calorie restriction may produce some rejuvenating effects.

So is the long search for the Fountain of Youth over? Probably not, but there’s a lot of promising stuff. There’s a followup study underway with more people, and there are a lot of questions to answer. Meanwhile, there’s always the opportunity to do a study of one.*

As an eclectic, intermittency is a pretty appealing thing to me; it’s fun to mix things up. So I like the idea of incorporating some occasional, not very structured, caloric restriction into my regimen. In fact, I might give it a rip for a few days starting today – I could stand to lose a few pounds anyway.

 

*I haven’t read this book, but it looks like The Fast Diet could have some good info on how to set up an intermittent fasting regimen.

 

A Quarter a Day

Food is a problem for a good chunk of the planet. There are over 800 million undernourished people in the world, and millions more that have other forms of malnutrition. According to Mark Bittman, the problem is more one of poverty than of a lack of food. Maybe this is true, but almost all of the potential agricultural land on the planet is currently in use (with an enormous toll on the environment), and with a growing population and complications from climate change, it will be harder to produce enough food to meet the world’s needs.

National Geographic currently has an ongoing series called The Future of Food, and in the November 2014 issue, there’s a blurb with some interesting facts. They mention bug eating as part of the solution to hunger.* Additionally, it only costs a quarter a day to give a child a school meal with enough for leftovers. So that would be about 0.002% of the annual U.S. budget to end hunger in the world? Seems worth it.

The good news is that, largely thanks to the UN Millennium Development Goals, hunger is dropping quickly worldwide. And, with the follow-up to the MDG, Sustainable Development Goals, the plan is to effectively end extreme poverty and hunger by 2030. There is some skepticism about these goals, but that shouldn’t deter us from trying. Imagine what an incredible human accomplishment this would be.

 

*I’ve had some involvement with the idea of entomophagy. My colleagues and I calculated the amount of land potentially required to meet the caloric needs of the world’s undernourished via insects, and it’s astonishingly small. Our paper was published in the Ecology of Food and Nutrition journal, and I’ll have more details on it in a future post.

 

Rat Love

rat empathyWe’ve spent a fair amount of time (too much?) discussing the plight of lab mice, so it’s time to give the lab rat its due. Rats are amazing little critters, and they have a lot to tell us about ourselves, especially if we subject them to torturous trials and tribulations. In a recent study, rats were put in the perilous situation of having to tread water for up to five minutes. A rat on an adjoining (dry) platform could free the “drowning” rat by opening a door to the platform, which they regularly did. Even when offered the choice between chocolate and freeing their wet companion, the rats chose to first help their pals 50-80% of the time.

This is a good indication that there’s a genetic basis for empathy and altruism. Whether the humans in the lab acquired these genes is up for debate.

More Tracking

wearing many hats

This was my camping/fishing/hiking 14ers hat – I lost it and I want a new one

As an eclectic, I wear many hats. So I’ve found it useful to keep track of how much time I put into my many projects in a spreadsheet. Some of these projects make me money and some don’t. It’s nice to have an idea of whether I might be devoting too much time, or not enough, to certain projects, especially if we need a little more dough; in which case, it might behoove me to pick up a painting job for a friend or put a little more into the advertising coffers of the coffin biz.

In 2014 I put about 1400 hours into my tracked projects. Broken down by months, I worked the most in September and June (bracketing my vacation-laden summer). I worked the least in January and February (it was cold). More than half my project time was fairly equally divided among painting (= money), casketry (= money), golf* (= spending money), and, wait for it, Poppa’s Cottage (= no money), all at 250-270 hours. Next up, at around 150 hours, was the new addition to my business portfolio, Simple Brew Kits, a business I started in one day** that didn’t get much action until someone promoted it. Next up, at about 100 hours, was property management of my rental properties (these happen to be my primary source of income at this point). I had about 50 hours putting the finishing touches on the addition to my own home. And rounding things out, I put about 25 hours into wrapping things up with an electric vehicle business (my old business partner, Paul, continues to provide excellent hybrid service), 25 hours into art and photography, 23 hours finishing and getting a research paper published,*** and a mere 7.25 hours on my mostly-dormant greeting card company, Recycled Greeting Cards.

The 2015 spreadsheet is coming along nicely, with a few new businesses and projects in the works. You can download the project spreadsheet here, and of course populate it with your own projects.

 

*I’m tracking this because I want to see how much time I have to put in before I get decent (say, 10-12 handicap – it’s going to be awhile, I’ll get back to you). This was partly inspired by The Dan Plan, partly to disprove the 10,000 hours maxim (I may need 20,000), partly to do something to stay in shape now that my old body can’t take much soccer, but mostly so I don’t look like a complete a-hole when I join my high school buddies for golf on our annual pilgrimage to watch the Packers at Lambeau. And, yes, I’m tracking my golf progress in yet another spreadsheet, which I may share some day if it’s not too embarrassing.

**Post forthcoming.

***More on this in a future post. Entomophagy, or insect eating, will play an increasing role in our food production as we strive to feed 9 billion people in a sustainable way.

Check Yourself

good mood

I’m outside, I’m with my brother, I’m drinking booze, it’s evening: I must be Happy!

2014 was the year of self-tracking for me. I created a mood tracking spreadsheet (download it for free), to which I also added my data from MyFitnessPal. Now the results are in, and what they reveal will shock you (not so much).

The primary purpose of building my mood tracking contraption was to see which variables in my life have the largest effect on my mood, happiness, energy, creativity, stress, grumpiness, day-to-day satisfaction, and life satisfaction (we’ll call these the affects, in the psychological sense). Some of the variables I looked at were food, booze, sleep, activity, time outside, weather, season, money stress, and family time.

There was a time when I used to be able to do some simple statistical analyses, but those days are (thankfully) gone.* So in this case, I plotted some of my variables versus certain affects and looked at the trendlines for simple correlations.

Results
Happiness, day-to-day satisfaction, and mood were strongly correlated, possibly because I didn’t do a very good job of distinguishing between them. Thus, the results were similar for all three, so I lumped them together under “mood” below. Note that all results are correlations, so the variables aren’t necessarily causal – although they could be.

  • my mood (and happiness and day-to-day satisfaction) gets slightly worse the more I weigh (I fluctuated from the low 160s to the low 180s), with more tv, and with more driving
  • my mood is worse with more sleep and more stress (go figure)
  • my mood is not changed with strength training, on vacation, and with different forms of work
  • my mood improves slightly with more family time, new activities, and more booze
  • my mood improves with more cardio exercise, golf, more time outside, and more food
  • my mood gets better as the day goes on
  • my mood is best in the spring and fall, and worst in the winter
  • my creativity decreases with booze, time spent outside, more driving time, and more tv time
  • my creativity increases slightly with more sleep and more calories
  • I’m most creative in the winter
  • I have slightly less energy with more calories
  • I have less energy the more I weigh and the more tv I watch (or, more likely, I watch more tv when I have less energy)
  • I have more energy in the spring and fall
  • I had 10 moments of feeling bliss/euphoria over the course of the year
  • My life satisfaction was very steady

The design of my mood tracking spreadsheet is pretty rudimentary, and there are endless areas for improvement (go ahead and add your own tweaks to make it better, and share it with the group). Nonetheless, it was a good tool for me to learn more about how I operate.

Over the years, in conjunction with less valleys, the peaks in my mood aren’t as lofty, kind of like an attenuating sine wave:

attenuating sine wave

 

 

 

 

Maybe in exchange for more stability, one sacrifices the intensity of one’s moods, both on the down- and upsides. Maybe in my more volatile days I felt a greater sense of relief after being in those deeper valleys, resulting in a more intense joy and excitement about having left the valley.

Lessons
So what did I learn from The Year of Tracking?

  1. Tracking oneself is onerous. Overmonitoring and spending too much time trying to be perfect can also cause stress. It’s been a few months since I stopped tracking stuff, and now that I’m just L-I-V-I-N,** I generally feel more relaxed and, well, happy – albeit fatter…
  2. Tracking my food intake does help me lose weight. Tracking can help one be more disciplined.
  3. Tracking teaches one certain things that can be carried beyond tracking. Because I’m more attuned to many of the variables that affect my mood, I probably do a better job now of avoiding negative actions and doing more positive things (without obsessing about them).
  4. Overmonitoring oneself and obsessing about one’s every action can be somewhat self-centered. Worrying about tiny fluctuations in one’s mood is a Rich Person Problem. Self-improvement is fine, as long as it’s a vehicle for virtue.
  5. Stress can be a good thing. Some of the day-to-day stress I experience (solving a difficult work problem, putting in a physically exhausting day, cleaning roots and shit out of a tenant’s backed up sewer, writing a time-consuming post) leads to highly rewarding feelings (and higher peaks on the old sine curve).
  6. Although not having enough food or sleep affects my mood, stressors like money, conflict, and other real-life issues ultimately have a more pronounced and lasting impact on my mood.***

In fact, a 2010 paper by Daniel Kahneman and Angus Deaton indicates that the less one’s household income is, below about $75,000/year, the more money stress exacerbates other issues, and affects one’s happiness (or emotional well-being, as the authors call it). Above the $75,000 threshold, people generally don’t experience greater happiness. But people’s life evaluation (similar to what I call life satisfaction here and fulfillment in other posts), continues to rise with household incomes above $75,000. Certainly this varies with different circumstances in different households, but it’s an indication that money woes may be one of the primary issues affecting people’s happiness.

So it’s as simple as making $75,000 a year to be happy, right? Or maybe it’s about learning to live a more frugal and less consumer lifestyle to avoid the stress associated with living on less than $75,000 (this guy did it on $7000 a year). Probably it’s some of both: paying people a living wage while simultaneously working toward a less consumerist society.

Beyond the obvious stresses associated with money, doing a little tracking to figure out which variables most affect your mood can be a growth exercise. Download the spreadsheet, tweak it to fit your needs, and let us know what you come up with.

 

*If there’s somebody out there who loves to play around with SAS and wants to do a real analysis of my data, let me know.

**This is Wooderson’s sage advice, coming from a twentysomething-year-old guy who still hangs out with high schoolers (“I get older, they stay the same age”). If the sequel to Dazed and ConfusedDallas Buyers Club, is any indication, Wooderson’s advice didn’t pan out too well (Leto’s really good as Slater, though).

***And of course genetics plays a role in our moods, too.

Dutch Treat

rik smits shaquille o'neal

Rik Smits (The Flying Dutchman), guarded by that pipsqueak (and Irish poet) Shaquille O’Neal

I like me some Dutch people. I lived in Holland for half a year back in the ’90s for a “study” abroad during college. Mostly I just drank beer and played soccer and ate Chinese food with my Dutch roommate Huub (“Wil je chinees” he would ask me: “Do you want to Chinese?” I always got the foe yong hai met krab). When you’re in Holland and you’re standing in a crowd of people, it quickly becomes apparent that you are short, and not just compared to the men; most of the women also tower above you (if you’re a wee little 5’11” lad like I am).

The bottom line is that the Dutch are just em-effing tall. A new study posits that the Dutch (who were shorter than Americans in the 19th Century) have become taller in the last sesquicentury not only because of better nutrition, but because of natural selection – tall genes have been selected for. I would say that this is better described as sexual selection – Dutch folks are attracted to tall folks, which tilts the evolutionary odds in favor of taller folks. It should be obvious, but this is further proof that humans didn’t just stop evolving at some point.

Tot ziens!