Here at the Cottage, my family and I, like most of the world, were shocked/stunned/surprised (dumbfounded, flabbergasted, stupefied, blindsided, bewildered, nutpunched?) that Donald Trump was elected president earlier this month. As what was supposed to be celebratory wine turned to bitter anodyne, a tumultuous fracas erupted in my head. My id, assholish as always, battled with my schoolmarmish superego, while my ego tried to find reconciliation. The battle raged for days, and continues to this day, although the three parties are moving toward détente. Following is our analysis of the election and what it portends.
Id: What the fuck just happened? We The People just elected a narcissist/psychopath/fascist/liar, not to mention misogynist/racist/xenophobic/anti-intellectual bully. Donal Trump is NOT my fucking president. I’m moving to Canada. Orange Qadhafi is not going to tell me what to do. Fuck it, I’m just going to shut out the outside world and focus on me and my family, maybe do some gardening. Fuck fuck fuck. I want to burn something. Fuck.
Superego: Hold on a sec, it’s not that bad, it’s not the end of the world. We need to give this guy a chance. Maybe he will do the opposite of everything he said during the campaign. Maybe he actually cares about women and Mexicans and Muslims and black people and working class folk and the environment and the good old U.S. of A. Maybe he wants to cancel the Paris climate change agreement so he can enact something even more fantastic, like a carbon tax. Maybe he didn’t release his taxes because he’s so humble that he didn’t want people to see the gobs of money he’s been giving to malnourished children around the world. Maybe he’s just stringing along Giuliani and Gingrich and Christie and Bannon (the real deplorables) as part of a master plan to mortally embarrass them for all their cheating and lying and underhandedness and vitriol. Maybe he meant he likes to grab kittens, to save them when they get stuck in trees. In fact, maybe this whole thing was just an act and Trump is secretly a progressive in the vein of Bernie Sanders. Regardless, we need to give him our full support, because he’s OUR president now.
Ego: Id, I totally agree with your first sentiment, but then you go off the deep end (which I guess is kind of your thing). As much as I hate to say it, Donald Trump IS my president. He won according to our rules (although I think some of those rules are flawed). But, when I say he’s my president, that doesn’t mean I’m going to get all Stockholm Syndrome-y and fall in love with the guy who kidnapped my country and is about to resume torture (figuratively and literally, if he himself is to be believed). I can already see the normalization of Trump going on in the mainstream media.
Trump may try to do some good things, like invest in infrastructure projects – that will create jobs and spur the economy. That’s something Obama tried to do, but was, as usual, stymied by Republicans. Maybe Trump can make some headway where Obama failed. Hey, maybe he will just rebrand Obamacare as Trumpcare – it was based on a Republican plan anyway (then all those people that hate it but need it might realize they love it).
But Trump is also planning to do some terrible things, according to his 100-day plan. Will he be able to follow through on all his crazy campaign vomitus? No, thank God/Allah/Flying Spaghetti Monster (trying to be inclusive here). But, in addition to the potential civil rights catastrophe that could occur under Trump, I’m most worried about the setback this represents to efforts to curb climate change; delays at this point could have disastrous consequences for billions of people and the planet. Make no mistake, Superego, some bad things are coming down the pipeline.
I am a white guy, so I can only imagine the anxiety that many people of color, immigrants, American Indians, and women feel.
Incidentally, Superego, about 40% of working class folks are people of color. And, to all working class folks, including all those white ones that voted for Trump, I fear that most of Trump’s policies will set you back even further – we’ve tried trickle down, but all that cash only tends to trickle up.
So, Id and Superego, we’re not moving to Canada – this isn’t a time for complacency. It’s a time to stand against terrible regressive ideas and policies. And it’s a time to redouble progressive efforts to stand with the working class and the poor and women and people of color and LGBT folks and immigrants and the environment and, yes, white guys.
What The Fuck Happened?
Id: I hate white people. Why are we so dumb? Why do we vote against our own fucking interests all the time, and then get mad when things don’t get better for us? Why do we think that anything that helps other groups is automatically bad for us? Hey, white trash redneck hillbillies, wake the fuck up and realize that Republicans tricked you into trading your livelihoods for automatic weapons without background checks. They are tricking you into thinking that the bad guys are immigrants and black people and brown people and women and gays and, yes, liberals, when really those are the people you should be in league with to fight the real bad guys: greedy regressive oligarchs… like Trump. I’m with Bill Maher: “White men [are] weeping like they just won some long, hard-fought civil rights battle: ‘Move over women and gays and minorities, it’s our turn now!’” Whatever happened to “Ask not what your country can do for you?”
White women, what the fuck?
And black people, did you not see this guy during the campaign?
This is the guy that continually turned away potential black tenants from his properties; now he’s hanging the “No Vacancy” sign on American prosperity. Where were you when it was time to vote? Milwaukee, if you had come out to vote like you did for Obama, Hillary would’ve won Wisconsin. Same deal in Michigan and Pennsylvania, which would’ve given her the election. And Latinos, remember this fun moment?
Yet about 30% of you voted for this guy.
James Comey, what the fuck?
Electoral College, what the fuck?
The media is a giant pile of crap. While systematically dismantling the real change candidate, Bernie Sanders, in favor of their establishment darling, Hillary Clinton, they continually treated the Trump candidacy as a funny joke (but, hey, it was great for ratings):
Where was the substantive talk about the actual policies of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump? You know things are fucked when the most substantive debate was hosted by Fox. Actually looking at their policies might’ve revealed Trump as the snake oil salesman he is. Donald Trump won’t be able to bring back coal mining jobs and he won’t give a fuck about miners once they’re out of work – Hillary Clinton’s proposals would go a lot further toward helping those miners find new jobs (this is a real fucking plan – did you ever hear about it from the media?).
But, Hillary Clinton, you suck. You are uninspiring and you are too beholden to Wall Street and all those other establishment elites. Barack Obama, you suck too – why didn’t you fight harder for real universal health care and other progressive policies that would have done so much more to lift up America’s poor and working class families? When it comes to the working class and poor, Democratic policies from the Bill Clinton era to the Obama era were Republican Lite establishment blowjobs; would Clinton II have been any different? If we really wanted to blast the shit out of the glass ceiling, we needed a firebrand like Elizabeth Warren. Still, Hillary, you were a million times better than the orange hemorrhoid that now resides on our collective asshole. Fuck.
Superego: What is with all the fucking swearing, Id? You’re going to have an aneurysm. First, I think we need to have some empathy for white folks who feel like they haven’t been heard. Republicans have used them, and Democrats seem to have forgotten that they exist. Republicans realized in the 1960s that they were going to start losing the demographic battle for votes if they didn’t do something drastic. Starting with the Southern strategy, which stoked white resentment about black people gaining civil rights, Republicans began a movement that tied a number of social issues (the whole God/Guns/Gays thing) together with their economic policies that help only the wealthy elite. When these policies go into effect, they make conditions even worse for those at the bottom, which creates more resentment and, perversely, redounds to the benefit of Republican politicians.
Democrats, on the other hand, realized that the Republican strategy was starting to falter, because the demographics are changing: there are less white rural voters out there compared to the Democratic urban base. With that in mind, Democrats could just say “fuck ’em” regarding the white rural folks, since they didn’t really need their votes anyway. Meanwhile, Democrats got people of color and white liberals so locked up that they could, kind of like the Republicans (but not nearly as insidious), stop paying attention to many of their constituents’ wants and needs. Why should Democrats care about unions if they no longer need union voters? And as unions have waned, so too has the voice of Labor (in the form of campaign contributions). Democrats, who used to get much of their support from Labor and non-business interest groups, are increasingly being funded by the same big business that funds Republican campaigns.
Michael Lerner in a recent NY Times op-ed, said: “Democrats need to become as conscious and articulate about the suffering caused by classism as we are about other forms of suffering. We need to reach out to Trump voters in a spirit of empathy and contrition. Only then can we help working people understand that they do not live in a meritocracy, that their intuition that the system is rigged is correct (but it is not by those whom they had been taught to blame) and that their pain and rage is legitimate.”
There are a lot of smart, hard-working white folks out there, but they no longer have a true champion in government. Admittedly, though, choosing Trump over even an establishment Democrat is like choosing to eat a dead rat you found in the street because you didn’t like the stale bread alternative.
Regarding voter turnout, you can’t blame it on African Americans. In conjunction with their Southern Strategy, Republican politicians have made a concerted effort to disenfranchise voters, culminating in the Supreme Court decision in 2013 that gutted the Voting Rights Act. Voter suppression is targeted at minorities and the poor, and gerrymandering has turned our country into a kaleidoscopic nightmare that favors Republicans in federal and state legislatures. Voter fraud is statistically zero, but voter ID laws and the like that are purported to stop fraud instead end up disenfranchising hundreds of thousands. Yes, voters in Milwaukee didn’t come out like they did for Obama, but Wisconsin’s voter ID law had a lot to do with that. The huge voter suppression efforts of the last few decades, almost solely perpetrated by leaders on the right, will be seen by history as one of the most shamefully anti-democratic agendas of this era (second only to the unfettered access corporations and wealthy individuals have to buy our politicians). Shame on anyone who tries to silence the voice of the American people.
Ego: I hear you, Superego, and agree that Id needs to ease up on the vitriol. Do you think that calling white rural folks rednecks and hillbillies and white trash is a good way to convince them we’re on the same team? Personally, I’m going to put a moratorium on those words. When it comes to poor white folks, liberals generally still find it acceptable to paint an entire group with the same brush. Yes, certain demographics may be more prone to misogyny, racism, homophobia, and xenophobia, but we become classists if we accuse everybody in a certain group of those ills.
As near as I can tell, from reading lots and lots of articles, Hillary lost the election because of disaffected white people… or misogyny… or racism… or voter turnout… or the media… or conservatives without a conscience… or her own suckiness… or James Comey… or voter suppression… or the electoral college… or a repudiation of the establishment… or the Russians… or because Democrats suck… or because people want a Pussy Grabber in Chief…
In truth, I think it’s some of all of the above (except for maybe the last thing). But I think the primary takeaway is that there were a lot of angry white voters out there who didn’t feel like they were being heard, and this was their Fuck You to the establishment. Thanks for your input, Id and Superego; I’ve taken that into account in coming up with this list of reasons that Donald Trump was elected our 45th president:
- Republicans Voted Republican: We can talk about all the things that tipped the scales this way or that way in the election, but the Republican base pretty much did what they always do, which is vote for a Republican.
- White Working Class Voters: In hundreds of counties throughout the so-called Rust Belt, white working class voters switched from Democrat to Republican between 2012 and 2016. In many of the rural midwestern counties that went more heavily for Trump, voter turnout was higher (a much higher proportion of nonvoters from 2012 became Trump voters in 2016). Previous nonvoter turnout for Trump, combined with hundreds of thousands switching parties, is, I think, the big story of the election. Some of this undoubtedly had to do with Trump’s message; Chris Offutt, in a recent Harper’s Article, wrote that Trump’s “real achievement is tapping into the frustration of people who feel ignored.” Another reason for the shift is the natural cycle of change – many of these people voted for change when they voted for Obama, and now they’re voting for change with Trump. And maybe part of the reason these people keep hoping for change is because they keep getting the shaft. Robert Reich argues that this vote was not a vote for hatefulness, but a vote to repudiate the American power structure. I largely agree, although I do believe that misogyny (and xenophobia and racism) played a role for many voters. But it’s hard to separate that from Hillary Clinton’s lack of engagement (how would Elizabeth Warren have fared with these voters?). To be sure, Clinton and the Democrats’ platform is far more friendly to these voters than the Republican Platform. But lip service only goes so far, and there wasn’t even much of that from Democrats. Unions used to hold some authority with the white working class, so of course their votes went to the party that fought for workers. But unions aren’t what they used to be, and white workers sure don’t want to be told what to do by the urban liberal elite (which includes the mainstream media), who seem to ridicule them as bumpkins at every turn. To quote Chris Offutt again, on angry white rural voters: “The only good thing to come out of Trump’s candidacy may be an increased national awareness of this population.”
- Voter Suppression: If the Voting Rights Act hadn’t been gutted, if Republican politicians hadn’t actively worked to deny people the right to vote, and if voting were easier, might the outcome have been different? We probably won’t know, but restrictive laws in some swing states like Wisconsin, Ohio, and North Carolina deterred many potential voters.
- The Media: A lot of people are up in arms about how the polls flat out missed the mark. I’m less concerned about that and more concerned with the fact that, as Superego mentioned, the media forgot to cover the actual news; in an election, doesn’t the media have a responsibility to provide citizens with facts about the candidates and their stances so we can make an informed decision? That isn’t to say that information about a candidate’s temperament or personality or improprieties isn’t relevant, but it shouldn’t be the only thing on the table. That said, citizens also have a responsibility to inform themselves, and Facebook and Infowars (and Fox) might not be the best sources.
- The Electoral College: If Trump had won the popular vote and Clinton had won the Electoral College, guess who would be having a fit about the riggedness of the Electoral College? Trump and his supporters would be going batshit. Depending on which side you’re on, it doesn’t seem fair. But, the way things are going in places like Texas and Arizona, the Electoral College will soon be a huge boon to Democrats – what will Republicans do when not only New York and California and Illinois are solid blue, but Texas tips that way? I think the Electoral College is flawed, but what kind of unintended consequences would ensue under a popular vote? Wouldn’t the concerns of people in less populous states instantly be wiped out? I think we need to do some detailed analysis before we go there; maybe we need some sort of a hybrid system similar to the way Representatives are proportional to a state’s population but each state gets two Senators, no matter how small (the state, not the senator).
- Other Stuff: Maybe James Comey and the Russians and Wikileaks played a role in the outcome, but I think they’re far outweighed by the other issues listed above. Which isn’t to dismiss their actions out-of-hand.
Id: Every day brings more revelations about how shitty this guy’s going to be. If his Cabinet picks are any indication, we’re in for a long ride on the Crazy Train. It’s a very diverse group: you’ve got your racists, your misogynists, your anti-semites, your nationalists… oh wait, that’s just Bannon… aside from him, you have your racists, your misogynists, your xenophobes, your nut jobs – altogether, a well-rounded group of old white guys.
What we have to do is what the Republicans do every time a Democrat gets in office: obstruct, delay, sabotage, cheat, lie, destroy by any means necessary.
No matter how good their policy is, we attack it. No matter how good their nominees are, we reject them (or refuse to hold hearings). Any chance we get, tie them up in legal red tape. Put a noose around Trump’s balls so tight that any move he makes is filled with excruciating pain. Make our whole country feel this pain to ensure they’re so sick of Trump after four years that they’re begging for change (literally and literally).
Another thing we can do is call Trump what he is: a shill. He’s a shill for moneyed interests, a shill for big oil. If we accuse him of that enough, his fragile psyche will react so defensively, he might even back off on some of his stances. “Don’t call me a shill, it hurts my feelings! Waaa, waaa.” Shill, baby, shill!
Superego: I agree that Trump’s picks thus far look pretty bad on paper, but again I think we need to give them a chance, wait and see what actions they take. I still have hope that the gravity of their positions will lead them to make much more rational decisions.
What would have happened if Clinton had won? The Democrats probably would have continued down the same establishment path, the anger would’ve continued to boil over in half the country (if they didn’t foment a coup in the meantime), and Paul Ryan would’ve become our next President in four years, bringing a plan that in some ways is more dangerous than Trump’s disjointed jackassery. Eight years of Ryan could have ushered in another major recession and might’ve tolled the death knell for measures to stop climate change. Maybe we’ll squeak through the Trump years without too much damage and we’ll end up with a true progressive to shine the light of never-ending prosperity on our beautiful country.
But if the Trump years do get pretty grim, at least it won’t affect me personally that much. I mean, maybe all those people that voted for him will get what they deserve.
Ego: That’s the kind of liberal elitism that alienates everybody outside of our bubble, Superego. What about all those people that didn’t vote for Trump that are going to be hurt immensely by his plans? What about the planet? And, even for those that did vote for him, we want their lives to be better, too. Going into a shell isn’t going to move us forward.
As for you, Id, you kind of sound like Trump (maybe he’s all id). What a cynical way to behave, to basically shut down government to the detriment of all, simply for political gain. What could be more unpatriotic? I’d go so far as to say it verges on being traitorous. That is truly going low, and that is not the path for progressives.
In fact, I think we need to come up with some new terminology here. We’ve mentioned the word regressive a few times. I’d like to distinguish between conservatives/Republicans and Regressives. I think it’s fair to say that most conservatives/Republicans want what they think is best for our country and the world. In contrast, Regressives want a world that is better for them personally, and if that gain is at the expense of the world as a whole, they’re OK with that. The average Republican voter is not a Regressive, but when it comes to their party, it has been hijacked by Regressives. Power and money corrupt, and although it may not be as overt as it is in some countries, corruption is rampant in Washington. Lest Democrats think they’re off the hook here, the Democratic Party is also being hijacked by Regressives, as money from greedy oligarchs pours in… oligarchs like Trump, for instance, as revealed in The National Review (not exactly a liberal rag). In fact, Trump even bragged about how he was able to buy politicians, outlined in another National Review article: “I give to everybody. When they call, I give.” Trump is, in fact, the quintessential Regressive – a guy that has always put himself first, ahead of other people, ahead of his country, ahead of the world. Will it be different now that he’s the head of the world?
“We must accept finite disappointment, but never lose infinite hope.” – Martin Luther King, Jr.
I think, in contrast to Regressive thinking, fundamentally most of us want a Progressive world – one where we have more opportunities, better schools, better health care, more security. We may differ on the best path forward, but we can mostly agree on where we want to go.
Regressives are like Sisyphus in reverse, rolling boulders down the hill, destroying whatever gets in the way. Regressives are masters of entropy, chaos. Sowing division and hate makes it easy to distract people from the path forward. It’s a lot harder to push that rock uphill, but that’s what Progressives do. Progressives can empathize with anger and fear, but don’t accept hate as the logical outcome to this anger and fear.
Id: If I could just interject, Ego, you’re getting a little platitudinous.
Ego: Sorry, the point is that most of us want the same things, so we should be able to form a broad coalition to fight against Regressive thinking. This coalition includes the poor, the entire working class (white, brown, black; women, men; immigrants, American-born), the middle class (who, incidentally, also work, right?), and anybody from the upper classes who isn’t solely interested in adding to their own wealth. It includes liberals and conservatives, urban elites and rural farmers, gay and straight and transgender folks, seniors and children, cowboys and Indians, homeless and blue bloods, cops and Crips, Muslims and Christians, atheists and Mormons, veterans and fraternity brothers, gun owners and kale shake drinkers, Packers fans and Bears fans.
Progressives need to stand up to Regressives in places like Standing Rock and Flint and Cleveland, but also in Appalachia and Mississippi and rural Michigan. We need to recognize that our systemic failures are affecting all Americans.
The “We” in We The People has never included all of us, but I think, now more than ever, we can all be We. One way to bring all these disparate groups together is by coalescing around the idea that we need to get money out of politics.
Follow The Money
Id: Lobbyist pigs in Washington are already jostling for room at the Trumpian slop trough. With Republicans in control of all three branches of government, this could represent a power grab by the moneyed elite such that we’ve never seen before. The pigs will rejoice with the foxes, who Trump will appoint to guard the henhouse. It’s always good to have the guardians of our democracy come from the very industry they’re supposed to be regulating: “Let’s see, head of the EPA, how about a good strong oil man who doesn’t believe in climate change? For the SEC, how about one of those old fuckers from the banking industry who thought sub-prime mortgages were a good idea?” Yes, our henhouse will be well-guarded – and guess who the hens are?
Superego: Hold on, Id, in Trump’s 100-day plan, he talks about cleaning up some of this lobbying mess. Trump, despite having utilized the system to his advantage, recognizes that it is flawed. Members and candidates for Congress spend 30-70% of their time raising money. Less than .03% of Americans gave the maximum contribution to candidates in 2012. Almost half the money donated to presidential candidates in 2016 came from 158 families (138 of whom support Republicans). The Koch brothers alone promised to spend $900 million on the 2016 election.
Ego: In 2016, Clinton actually raised a shit-ton more money than Trump did. But overall, most business funding goes to Republicans. What can we do about it? Trump has discussed “draining the swamp” in Washington, so changing lobbying and campaign finance rules may be one area where Progressives could make some inroads under a Trump administration. We should support Trump’s proposals to limit lobbying, and push for even stricter limits. Progressives can also fight to overturn Citizens United and Buckley v. Valeo, two Supreme Court decisions that have allowed corporate money to influence our elections. Given that many of his primary opponents, as well as Hillary Clinton, received much more of this outside money than he did, Trump may be amenable to changing the system. One proposal that could have an impact is the Government by the People Act, which could effectively close some corporate tax loopholes. Need some more motivation about changing our corrupt system? Watch this:
If we want a system that benefits 300 million-plus people, we can’t let 158 of them decide who will represent us.
Make America Great
Ego: When was America Great? Nobody really thought to ask Donald Trump this question, or what this Greatness entailed. My theory is that, for Trump and his followers, the post-World War II era was when America was Great. Income inequality was relatively low, prosperity seemed imminently attainable, and white Americans felt safe and secure. Then came all the unruliness of Civil Rights and Vietnam War protesters and scary naked hippies dancing in the mud. The world became a much more complicated place when, on paper at least, everybody was supposed to have equal opportunity. Meanwhile, in the background, more and more of the wealth created was flowing to those at the top.
The myth of this golden era is that America was Great for everyone. In most ways for most people, it’s better today than it was in 1950. We are the wealthiest nation in the world, but that prosperity isn’t accruing to everyone, and by many metrics (income and wealth inequality, health, education, poverty, life satisfaction) we are falling behind much of the developed (and in some cases, developing) world. As the wealthiest nation, shouldn’t we be leading the world in most of these areas? Shouldn’t we be showing the rest of the world the way forward?
If Donald Trump really wants to fix America, he needs to move our government toward a system that is not beholden to the wealthy few, and invests in equal opportunity for all. He needs to recognize that division and hatred aren’t the way forward. I don’t have high hopes that he will suddenly have this revelation. But I do believe that We The People will continue to recognize more and more that together we can all prosper.
Id: Kind of cheesy, Ego, but hear! hear!
If nothing else, maybe Trump will realize that climate change is going to affect him personally, since his Mar-a-Lago resort is likely to be inundated by rising sea levels if he doesn’t continue efforts to curb climate change. My last post, though, was about how the new president needs to be open to science – Trump is anything but. [Back]
According to Wall Street executive Steven Rattner, if Trump “follows through on his ideas, we could face higher prices on imported goods, rising interest rates, substantial inflation and a further shift of wealth to the upper classes.”
According to the Tax Policy Center, Trump’s tax cuts would go primarily to those at the top. By 2025, the bottom 20% would see 0.8% of the tax cuts, or about $120, whereas the top 20% would see 82.8% of the tax cuts, or about $24,440. Within the top 20%, the top 1% would get 50.8% of the tax cut ($317,100 each) and the top 0.1% would get 24.5% of the tax cut (almost $1.5 million each). Trump’s tax cuts would also precipitate a ballooning national debt, adding almost $1.5 trillion to our current debt by 2025 – now that’s fiscal conservatism for you. Finally, by doing away with many of the regulations that protect non-elite Americans and the environment, there’s a good chance Trump will usher in another Bushian recession (remember that, remember when Bush did all the tax cutting and all the war spending and all the deregulating that brought us the Great Recession, the one that put all those people out of work, the one that made all those poor out-of-work white people angry and scared, scared enough to vote for a crazy person who will make their lives even worse?). [Back]
In encouraging news, a panel of federal judges recently found Wisconsin’s 2011 redistricting unconstitutional. In a measure of how bad it is there, in 2012 Wisconsin Republicans won 48.6% of the vote, but ended up taking 61% of Assembly seats. Using a new measure called the efficiency gap, it is now fairly straightforward to see the level of gerrymandering. If the Supreme Court upholds this ruling, it could spell the end of partisan gerrymandering. In fact, when districts are redrawn in 2021, they should be required to use the efficiency gap metric to ensure fairness. [Back]
Really, I’m going to banish those words from my lexicon. There’s no utility to calling a whole group of people something derogatory. If an individual is racist or misogynist or ignorant, I’ll call them out on that. [Back]
Note that the first item of the Democratic Platform is raising workers’ wages. The Republican Platform, in contrast, begins with a vague idea of creating jobs that seems to rely primarily on the premise that people just need to work harder. [Back]
According to Open Secrets, the total amount raised by presidential candidates was $1.3 billion. Of this, Hillary Clinton raised $687.3 million ($497.8 directly to her campaign plus $189.5 million to outside groups supporting her), and Donald Trump raised $306.9 million ($247.5 million for his campaign plus $59.4 million to outside groups). Clinton raised more money from almost all industry sectors than Trump, as well as from Labor and Single Issue groups. Notably, though, Republican presidential candidates as a whole (Trump and the primary candidates) dominated fundraising from most business sectors, whereas Democrats received the majority of funding from Communications/Electronics, Defense, Health, Lawyer/Lobbyists, Labor, and Ideology/Single Issue groups. [Back]